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General Principles

Structure & Bonding Electron Configurations of Atoms Chemical Bonding & Valence Charge Distribution in Molecules Practice Problems The Shape of Molecules Isomers Analysis of Molecular Formulas Resonance Atomic and Molecular Orbitals Practice Problems

Intermolecular Forces Boiling & Melting Points Hydrogen Bonding Crystalline Solids Water Solubility Practice Problems

Chemical Reactivity Reaction Classification By Structural Change By Reaction Type Acid-Base Reactions Oxidations & Reductions By Functional Group Reaction Variables Reactants & Reagents Product Selectivity Other Variables Reaction Rate Intermediates Reaction Energetics Bond Energy Electronic Effects Steric Effects Solvent Effects Reaction Mechanisms Curved Arrow Notation Reactive Intermediates Reaction Illustrations Nucleophilicity & Basicity Acid-Base Catalysis Practice Problems

Aromaticity Benzene Fused Ring Compounds Other Aromatic Compounds The Hückel Rule Practice Problems

Nomenclature Alkanes Cycloalkanes Practice Problems Alkenes & Alkynes Substituted Benzenes Other Functional Groups Practice Problems

Stereoisomers Part I Alkene Configurational Isomers Cycloalkane Configurational Isomers Practice Problems Conformational Isomers Ethane Butane Cycloalkanes Substituted Cyclohexanes Practice Problems

Stereoisomers Part II Chirality & Symmetry Symmetry Elements Enantiomorphism Optical Activity Configurational Nomenclature Compounds with Several Stereogenic Centers Stereogenic Nitrogen Fischer Projection Formulas Achiral Diastereomers Other Configurational Notations Resolution Conformational Enantiomorphism Practice Problems

Summary of Isomerism

Other Topics


Mass Spectrometry Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy Infrared Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy


Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins and Amino Acids Nucleic Acids

Free Radicals



Organometallic Chemistry

Pericyclic Reactions


Anionic Rearrangements

Cationic Rearrangements

Introduction to Synthesis

Principles of Modern Synthesis Stereoselective Synthesis

Concerning Practice Problems

The practice problems provided as part of this text are chiefly interactive, and should provide a useful assessment of the reader's understanding at various stages in the development of the subject. Some of these problems make use of a Molecular Editor drawing application created by Peter.Ertl. To practice using this editor Click Here.
Since problem solving is essential to achieving an effective mastery of the subject, it is recommended that many more problems be worked. Most organic chemistry textbooks contain a broad assortment of suitable problems, and paperback collections of practice problems are also available. In addition, a large collection of multiple choice problems may be viewed Here.
The following button will activate a collection of problems concerning the reactivity of common functional groups.

The following web-sites provide nice collections of problems and answers:
Towson University-reaction quizzes and summaries
Ohio State University-electronic flashcards
University of Wisconsin-concept questions
UCLA-helpful advice
Notre Dame-spectroscopy problems

For a useful collection of study materials, including links to other sites, visit the Organic chemistry tool-kit. Prepared by Bob Hanson, St. Olaf College

Functional Group Reactions

Alkanes Combustion Substitution (of H by halogen) Practice Problems

Alkenes Electrophilic Additions Strong Brønsted Acids Lewis Acids (non-Proton Electrophiles) Electrophilic Halogen Reagents Other Electrophilic Reagents Reduction Oxidation Radical Additions Allylic Substitution Practice Problems Dienes Addition Reactions Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Practice Problems

Alkynes Addition Reactions Hydrogenation Electrophiles Hydration & Tautomerism Hydroboration Nucleophilile Addition & Reduction Acidity of Terminal Alkynes (Substitution of H) Practice Problems

Alkyl Halides Occurrence General Reactivity Substitution(of X) SN2 Mechanism SN1 Mechanism Elimination (of HX) Summary of Substiution vs. Elimination Substitution by Metals Elimination Reactions of Dihalides Practice Problems

Alcohols Nomenclature Reactions of Alcohols Substitution of the Hydroxyl H Substitution of the Hydroxyl Group Elimination of Water Oxidation of Alcohols Reactions of Phenols Acidity of Phenols Ring Substitution of Phenols Oxidation to Quinones Practice Problems

Ethers Nomenclature Preparation of Ethers Reactions of Ethers Acid Cleavage Peroxide Formation Epoxide Reactions Practice Problems

Thiols & Sulfides Sulfur Analogs of Alcohols & Ethers

Benzene & Derivatives Electrophilic Substitution A Substitution Mechanism Reactions of Substituted Benzenes Reaction Characteristics Reactions of Disubstituted Rings Reactions of Substituent Groups Nucleophilic Substitution, Elimination & Addition Reactions Practice Problems

Amines Nomenclature & Structure Properties of Amines Boiling Point & Solubility Basicity of Nitrogen Compounds Acidity of Nitrogen Compounds Important Reagent Bases Reactions of Amines Electrophilic Substitution at Nitrogen Preparation of 1º-Amines Preparation of 2º & 3º-Amines Practice Problems Reactions with Nitrous Acid Reactions of Aryl Diazonium Intermediates Elimination Reactions of Amines Oxidation States of Nitrogen Practice Problems

Phosphines Phosphorus Analogs of Amines

Aldehydes & Ketones Nomenclature of Aldehydes & Ketones Occurrence of Aldehydes & Ketones Natural Products Synthetic Preparation Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones Reversible Addition Reactions Hydration & Hemiacetal Formation Acetal Formation Imine Formation Enamine Formation Cyanohydrin Formation Irreversible Addition Reactions Complex Metal Hydrides Organometallic Reagents Carbonyl Group Modification Wolff-Kishner Reduction Clemmensen Reduction Hydrogenolysis of Thioacetals Oxidations Reactions at the ?-Carbon Mechanism of Electrophilic ?-Substitution The Aldol Reaction Ambident Enolate Anions Alkylation of Enolate Anions Practice Problems

Carboxylic Acids Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids Natural Products Related Derivatives Physical Properties Acidity Preparation of Carboxylic Acids Reactions of Carboxylic Acids Salt Formation Substitution of Hydroxyl Hydrogen Substitution of the Hydroxyl Group Reduction & Oxidation Practice Problems

Carboxylic Derivatives Physical Properties Nomenclature Reactions of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Acyl Group Substitution Mechanism Reduction Catalytic Reduction Metal Hydride Reduction Diborane Reduction Reaction with Organometallic Reagents Practice Problems Reactions at the ? Carbon Acidity of ? C-H The Claisen Condensation Synthesis Applications Practice Problems

Chemistry - Matter, Atoms, & More

General Sites
All About Atoms
About Atoms
The Particle Adventure
Atom Builder
Matter Interactive
Molecule of the Month
Science Is Fun
OMSI Experiencing Chemistry
About Atoms - Bonds
Chemistry - An Introduction
Chemistry & You
Drag & Drop Chemical Formulas*
Drag & Drop Molecule Magic*
Physical/Chemical Changes
Physical/Chemical Changes Quiz
EPA Chemicals at Home
Viscosity Explorer
Chemistry Q & A

* Games work only in Internet Explorer
** Requires a subscription

Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations
Classic ChemBalancer
It's Elemental - Balancing Act
Review ChemBalancer
Brain Boggle ChemBalancer
Balancing Equations Tutorial
Creative Chemistry Balancing Equations
Stinks & Bangs Equations

PBS Kaboom
NOVA Fireworks
How Fireworks Work
The Chemistry of Fireworks
 COTW - Fireworks
BrainPOP Fireworks**
Interactive Fireworks

Plastics 101
History of Plastics
HandsOn Plastics
Kids' Macrogalleria
Polymer Flash Activities
Polymers - They're Everywhere
Strange Matter
Nobel Plastics & Polymers
Nobel Heating Plastics Game

Chemistry Games & Puzzles
JLab Games & Puzzles
Element Quiz
Find the Element
Mrs. T's Chemistry Challenge
Mrs. T's Elemental Quiz
Quia Chem Games-Common Chemicals
FunBrain - Proton Don
Syvum Chemistry Games
Element Games
Chem Class Games
Chemistry for Beginners
Chemistry Jigsaw Puzzles
Stinks & Bangs Matching Games
Oil Strike Game


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